For an object to be connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) it must be able to communicate with the internet. There are various modules available that provide a communication standard for this connection to be made.

Objects or devices can be connected to the internet through various different standards including cellular phone networks, satellites, WiFi, Bluetooth, low power wide area networks (LPWAN), low power long range networks and so on. For an object to be connected it must contain an IoT module that implements the required communication standard. Without this ability to communicate objects cannot send information about what they are monitoring and are not part of the IoT.

Low power, high performance embedded modules are targeted at WiFi connectivity, for example, and these reduce the complexity of development since they are implemented as plug and play devices that integrate all the necessary wireless hardware and software into a small module driven by a simple microcontroller.